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PHYYCAL BACKUPS ( COLD AND HOT BACKUPS)

Physical backups:

1.Cold backup
2.Hot backup

 

Cold backups:

A cold backup is consistent backup.
A database is in No archive log mode db recovery is not possible.

Restore and recover is possible in the database is in archive log mode.

Oracle database having two types of recoveries

1.Incomplete recovery
loss of control file
loss of online redolog files
2.Complete recovery
Having the control files
Having the redo log files

Steps to create a cold backup

1.Shutdown the database(gracefull shutdown)
2.At OS level copy all the CRD to the backup destination
3.startup the database and continue the database transaction

Note:Before taking the cold backup make sure the database in archivelog mode.

Simple restore can be done by OS Administrator
Recovery can be done only by DBA

Complete recovery can be done
1.Online(When any datafile is missing does not belongs to SYSTEM/UNDOTBS)
2.offline(Any dbf is missing related to system and undo)
Incomplete Recovery can be done
1.Until cancel(Apply all available archive logs)
2.until time(Apply archive log specified time)
3.until SCN (Apply archive upto specified SCN)
Note:At end of incomplete recovery we must resetlog then only open the database.

Note:Once Open the database with resetlogs option Previous backup is invalid Please take fresh backup again.

 

SCENARI0:1

LOSS of CRD files:

1.Shut down the database(SHUT abort)
2.At oS level copy all CRD files from Last night backup.
3.startup the database to mount state.
4.recover the database using backup controlfile with until cancel.
5.Open the databse with resetlogs.

Scenario:2

Loss of System database file

1.shutdown the database
2.At os level restore System.dbf file from last night backup.
3.startup to mount stage.
4.recover the database.
5.Open the database.

Scenari0:3

Loss of Non System DBF file(present in backup set)

1.Identify the datafile make it offline.(by checking alert logfile)
2.At os level restore the datafile.
3.recover the datafile
4.make the datafile online.

Scenario:4

Loss of Non System dbf file(not present in backup set)

1.Identity the datafile.
2.make the datafile offline.
3.recreate the datafile to be recovered with the same name.
4.perform the recover on the datafile.
5.make the datafile online.

 

Scenario:5

Loss of Undo datafile

1.Shut down the database.
2.restore undo datafile from last night backup.
3.startup to mount stage
4.make the datafile offline
5.perform recovery on that particulat datafile.
6.make the datafile online
7.open the database.

 

Scenario:6

Loss of controlfile

1.Shut down the database(Shut abort)
2.At os level restore the control file.
3.startup to mount stage.
4.perform recovery using backup controlfile until cancel
5.Open the database with reset logs.

Scenario:7

Loss Of redolog files

1.shutdown the database
2.At os level restore all the dbf files
3.startup to mount stage
4.perform recovery until cancel
5.Open the database with resetlogs.

 

Scenario 8:

Point Time recovery(PITR)

8:00 AM
—-
—–
——
11:00 AM Commited
—-
11:30 AM (droped a table)

—-
—-
—–
4:00 PM

 

How to recover a table?

In this Scenario we are going to recover the database a particular point in time.

Steps for Point in time recovery:

1.Shut down the database.
2.take a 4:00 PM backup that means lastest cold backup.
3.restore last night cold backup at os level & and perform recovery till particular time.
4.export the table which we want to get back.
5.restore 4 PM backup by shutdown the database.
6.open the database and import the table.

 

1.first take the backup

create user

grant connect,resource to pitr identified by pitr;

create demo tables

insert some values
commit;
drop the table

insert some records on another table

take the fresh backup

shut down and restore last backup

recover the table

alter database recover automatic using backup controlfile until time ‘2014:03:12 20:12:13′;

alter database open resetlogs;

conn pitr/pitr
select count(*) from dept;
select count(*) from emp;
exp file=emp.dmp log=emp.log tables=emp

shut down the database and restore the fresh backup
RESTORE THE TABLE

hoT baCKUPS

 

1.If the database is production database which 24X7 environment cold backups are not possible.In this case we can got for hot backups.
2.The hot backup is inconsistant backup.because the backups are taken online(When the database is open)
3.In this hot backups only controlfile and datafiles are backups.
4.Science the backups are perform when users are performing the transactions we don’t backup redologs.
5.The backup of the database will be taken between begin backup mode and end backup modes.
6.By keeping the database begin backup mode we take the datafiles backup at os level.
7.control file backup will be taken at SQL Prompt
8.In hot backups we can’t go for simple restore.ie reason the database must be in archive log mode.

 

The disadvantage of hot backups excesive redo data is genarated more in the database.

 

ALTER DATABASE BEGIN BACKUP;

 

SQL> alter database begin backup;

Database altered.

SQL> desc v$backup
Name Null? Type
—————————————– ——– —————————-
FILE# NUMBER
STATUS VARCHAR2(18)
CHANGE# NUMBER
TIME DATE

SQL> select file#,status from v$backup;

FILE# STATUS
———- ——————
1 ACTIVE
2 ACTIVE
3 ACTIVE
4 ACTIVE
5 ACTIVE
6 ACTIVE
7 ACTIVE
8 ACTIVE
9 ACTIVE

9 rows selected.

[oracle@lnx02 oradata]$ cp *.dbf /u02/hot/
[oracle@lnx02 oradata]$ !sq
sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Wed Nov 18 08:30:22 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> alter database end backup;

Database altered.

SQL> select file#,status from v$backup;

FILE# STATUS
———- ——————
1 NOT ACTIVE
2 NOT ACTIVE
3 NOT ACTIVE
4 NOT ACTIVE
5 NOT ACTIVE
6 NOT ACTIVE
7 NOT ACTIVE
8 NOT ACTIVE
9 NOT ACTIVE

9 rows selected.

 

[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon Apr 14 08:54:04 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> select name from v$database;

NAME
———
TEST

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch
Oldest online log sequence 134
Next log sequence to archive 135
Current log sequence 135
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf

 

LOSS OF controlfile,redo log,datafile

 

[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ rm *
rm: cannot remove `arch’: Is a directory
rm: cannot remove `diag’: Is a directory
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls -lrt
total 8
drwxrwxr-x 3 oracle oinstall 4096 Apr 5 08:35 diag
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Apr 14 08:40 arch

SQL> startup force
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

 

SQL> shut abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL>

Restore the database from cold backup

 

[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp * /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon Apr 14 08:56:26 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected.
SQL> desc dba_data_files
ERROR:
ORA-01012: not logged on

 

SQL> exit
Disconnected
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ clear

[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls -lrt
total 1339424
drwxrwxr-x 3 oracle oinstall 4096 Apr 5 08:35 diag
drwxr-xr-x 2 oracle oinstall 4096 Apr 14 08:40 arch
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 4194816 Apr 14 08:58 redo1a.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 8077312 Apr 14 08:58 new_cont.ctl
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 7847936 Apr 14 08:58 cont.ctl
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 20979712 Apr 14 08:58 bigtbs.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 4194816 Apr 14 08:58 redo3b.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 4194816 Apr 14 08:58 redo3a.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 4194816 Apr 14 08:58 redo2b.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 4194816 Apr 14 08:58 redo2a.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 4194816 Apr 14 08:58 redo1b.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 314580992 Apr 14 08:58 sysaux
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 5251072 Apr 14 08:59 temp2.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 314580992 Apr 14 08:59 system.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 10493952 Apr 14 08:59 temp3.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 5251072 Apr 14 08:59 test2.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 209723392 Apr 14 08:59 temp.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 5251072 Apr 14 08:59 ts_dict_stor.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 5251072 Apr 14 08:59 tsdict.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 5244928 Apr 14 08:59 ts2k.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 5251072 Apr 14 08:59 test.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 10493952 Apr 14 08:59 undotbs1.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 314580992 Apr 14 08:59 undotbs.dbf
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 314580992 Apr 14 08:59 userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon Apr 14 09:00:10 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database recover automatic using backup controlfile until cancel;
alter database recover automatic using backup controlfile until cancel
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00279: change 1022290 generated at 04/14/2014 08:50:01 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_135_844331231.dbf
ORA-00280: change 1022290 for thread 1 is in sequence #135
ORA-00278: log file ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_135_844331231.dbf’ no
longer needed for this recovery
ORA-00308: cannot open archived log
‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_135_844331231.dbf’
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch
Oldest online log sequence 134
Next log sequence to archive 135
Current log sequence 135
SQL> recover cancel;
Media recovery complete.
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$database;

NAME OPEN_MODE
——— ——————–
TEST READ WRITE

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch
Oldest online log sequence 1
Next log sequence to archive 1
Current log sequence 1
SQL>

 

 

Loss of system.dbf file

1.go to os level remover the system.dbf file

 

cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/
rm system.dbf

2.see the error message

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 1 – see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 1: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/system.dbf’

 

SQL> shut abort;
ORACLE instance shut down.

 

[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ ls
bigtbs.dbf new_cont.ctl redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
cont.ctl redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp system.dbf /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$

 

[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Mon Apr 14 09:24:48 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> recover database;
Media recovery complete.
SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL>
SQL> select name,open_mode from v$database;

NAME OPEN_MODE
——— ——————–
TEST READ WRITE

 

3.Loss of Non system dbf file present in backup set.

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> cl scr

 

SQL> select username,default_tablespace from dba_users;

USERNAME DEFAULT_TABLESPACE
—————————— ——————————
DEMOUSER USERDATA
IMPUSER USERDATA
SCOTT USERDATA
UNDOUSER USERDATA
NEWUSER USERDATA
ORACLE USERDATA
ORACLE_OCM USERDATA
DIP USERDATA
APPQOSSYS SYSAUX
DBSNMP SYSAUX
SYSTEM SYSTEM

USERNAME DEFAULT_TABLESPACE
—————————— ——————————
SYS SYSTEM
OUTLN SYSTEM

13 rows selected.

SQL> alter user newuser identified by newuser;

User altered.

SQL> conn newuser/newuser
Connected.
SQL> select * from tab;

TNAME TABTYPE CLUSTERID
—————————— ——- ———-
DEPT TABLE
EMP TABLE
MLOG$_DEPT TABLE
RUPD$_DEPT TABLE
SALGRADE TABLE

SQL> insert into salgrade select * from salgrade;

2560 rows created.

SQL> /

5120 rows created.

SQL> /

10240 rows created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ rm userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:08:02 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> conn newuser/newuser
Connected.
SQL> create table t(sno number(4));

Table created.

 

SQL> insert into t values(10);
insert into t values(10)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01116: error in opening database file 4
ORA-01110: data file 4: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/userdata.dbf’
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

SQL>conn / as sysdba

 

SQL> select file_id,file_name from dba_data_files where tablespace_name=’USERDATA’;

 

QL> col file_name for a50
SQL> set lines 200
SQL> /

FILE_ID FILE_NAME
———- ————————————————–
4 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/userdata.dbf

SQL> alter database datafile 4 offline;

Database altered.

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp userdata.dbf /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ !sq
sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:11:07 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> alter database recover automatic datafile 4;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database datafile 4 online;

Database altered.

SQL> conn newuser/newuser
Connected.
SQL> select count(*) from salgrade;

COUNT(*)
———-
20480

SQL>

 

4.Loss of non system dbf file not present in backup set:

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> select tablespace_name from dba_tablespaces;

TABLESPACE_NAME
——————————
SYSTEM
SYSAUX
UNDOTBS
TEMP
USERDATA
TEST
DICT
TS_DICT_STOR
TEMP2
TEMP3
BIGTBS

TABLESPACE_NAME
——————————
UNDOTBS1

12 rows selected.

SQL> create tablespace npb datafile ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/npb.dbf’ size 5m;

Tablespace created.

SQL> create user testuser identified by testuser default tablespace npb;

User created.

SQL> grant connect,resource to testuser;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> conn testuser/testuser
Connected.

Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:16:43 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> conn testuser/testuser
Connected.
SQL> @demobld

Table created.

 

Table created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

Table created.

 

Table created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

Commit complete.

SQL> select * from tab;

TNAME TABTYPE CLUSTERID
—————————— ——- ———-
BONUS TABLE
DEPT TABLE
EMP TABLE
SALGRADE TABLE

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag npb.dbf redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ rm npb.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:18:29 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> conn testuser/testuser
Connected.
SQL> create table tst(tno number(4));

Table created.

SQL> insert into tst values(30);
insert into tst values(30)
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01116: error in opening database file 7
ORA-01110: data file 7: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/npb.dbf’
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> alter database datafile 7 offline;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database create datafile 7;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database recover automatic datafile 7;

Database altered.

SQL> conn testuser/testuser
Connected.
SQL> insert into tst values(10);

1 row created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL>

5.Loss of undo dbf file:

 

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ rm undotbs*
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:25:08 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> conn testuser/testuser
Connected.
SQL> insert into salgrade select * from salgrade;
insert into salgrade select * from salgrade
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00942: table or view does not exist

 

SQL> conn demouser/demouser
Connected.
SQL> insert into salgrade select * from salgrade;

5 rows created.

SQL> /

10 rows created.

SQL> /

20 rows created.

SQL> /

40 rows created.

SQL> /

80 rows created.

SQL> /

160 rows created.

SQL> /

320 rows created.

SQL> /

640 rows created.

SQL> /
insert into salgrade select * from salgrade
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01116: error in opening database file 3
ORA-01110: data file 3: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/undotbs.dbf’
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> shut abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp undotbs* /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:27:31 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database datafile 3 offline;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database recover automatic datafile 3;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database datafile 3 online;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open;
alter database open
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01113: file 9 needs media recovery
ORA-01110: data file 9: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/undotbs1.dbf’

 

SQL> alter database datafile 9 offline;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database recover automatic datafile 9;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database datafile 9 online;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> select name,open_mode from v$database;

NAME OPEN_MODE
——— ——————–
TEST READ WRITE

SQL>
=========================================================================================
6.Loss of controlfile

 

SQL> select name from v$controlfile;

NAME
——————————————————————————–
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/new_cont.ctl

SQL> set pages 500
SQL> select username from dba_users;

USERNAME
——————————
TESTUSER
DEMOUSER
IMPUSER
SCOTT
UNDOUSER
NEWUSER
ORACLE
ORACLE_OCM
DIP
APPQOSSYS
DBSNMP
SYSTEM
SYS
OUTLN

14 rows selected.

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> sho parameter control_file

NAME TYPE VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
control_file_record_keep_time integer 7
control_files string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/n
ew_cont.ctl
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ rm new_cont.ctl
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:37:58 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select file_id,file_name,tablespace_name from dba_data_files;
select file_id,file_name,tablespace_name from dba_data_files
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/new_cont.ctl’
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 

SQL> shut abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp new_cont.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:39:03 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database recover automatic using backup controlfile until cancel;
alter database recover automatic using backup controlfile until cancel
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00279: change 1064910 generated at 04/15/2014 08:30:29 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_4_844851740.dbf
ORA-00280: change 1064910 for thread 1 is in sequence #4
ORA-00278: log file ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_4_844851740.dbf’ no
longer needed for this recovery
ORA-00308: cannot open archived log
‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_4_844851740.dbf’
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

 

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch
Oldest online log sequence 3
Next log sequence to archive 4
Current log sequence 4
SQL> recover cancel;
ORA-01547: warning: RECOVER succeeded but OPEN RESETLOGS would get error below
ORA-01194: file 1 needs more recovery to be consistent
ORA-01110: data file 1: ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/system.dbf’

 

SQL> select member from v$logfile;

MEMBER
——————————————————————————–
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo2a.log
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo1a.log

SQL> recover database using backup controlfile;
ORA-00279: change 1064910 generated at 04/15/2014 08:30:29 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_4_844851740.dbf
ORA-00280: change 1064910 for thread 1 is in sequence #4

 

Specify log: {<RET>=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/redo2a.log
Log applied.
Media recovery complete.
SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> archive log list
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch
Oldest online log sequence 1
Next log sequence to archive 1
Current log sequence 1
SQL> shut immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cp * /u03/cold/
cp: omitting directory `arch’
cp: omitting directory `diag’

==========================================================================================================================

 

Loss of Redolog files:

session 1

SQL> set pages 500
SQL> select username from dba_users;

USERNAME
——————————
TESTUSER
DEMOUSER
IMPUSER
SCOTT
UNDOUSER
NEWUSER
ORACLE
ORACLE_OCM
DIP
APPQOSSYS
DBSNMP
SYSTEM
SYS
OUTLN

14 rows selected.

SQL> conn demouser/demouser
Connected.
SQL> insert into salgrade select * from salgrade;

1280 rows created.

SQL> /

2560 rows created.

SQL> /

5120 rows created.

SQL> /

10240 rows created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> alter system switch logfile;
alter system switch logfile
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

 

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl redo1b.log redo2b.log redo3b.log system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag redo1a.log redo2a.log redo3a.log sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ rm *.log
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ ls
arch cont.ctl new_cont.ctl system.dbf temp3.dbf test2.dbf ts2k.dbf ts_dict_stor.dbf undotbs.dbf
bigtbs.dbf diag sysaux temp2.dbf temp.dbf test.dbf tsdict.dbf undotbs1.dbf userdata.dbf
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:47:52 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> conn demouser/demouser
Connected.
SQL> insert into salgrade select * from salgrade;

20480 rows created.

SQL> /

40960 rows created.

SQL> /

81920 rows created.

SQL> /

163840 rows created.

SQL> /

 

Database goes to pause mode

Once instance is down in the second session got the error message

SQL> /
insert into salgrade select * from salgrade
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-03113: end-of-file on communication channel
Process ID: 14200
Session ID: 1 Serial number: 13

 

Open the session 2

[root@lnx01 ~]# su – oracle
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ . .bash_profile
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=prod
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:48:53 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> sho parameter dump

NAME TYPE VALUE
———————————— ———– ——————————
background_core_dump string partial
background_dump_dest string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/d
iag/rdbms/test/prod/trace
core_dump_dest string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/d
iag/rdbms/test/prod/cdump
max_dump_file_size string unlimited
shadow_core_dump string partial
user_dump_dest string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/d
iag/rdbms/test/prod/trace
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/diag/rdbms/test/prod/trace
[oracle@lnx01 trace]$ ls -lrt *.log
-rw-r—– 1 oracle oinstall 162764 Apr 15 08:49 alert_prod.log
[oracle@lnx01 trace]$ view alert_prod.log
[oracle@lnx01 trace]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:50:05 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> shut abort
ORACLE instance shut down.

 

 

Loss of redolog files

[oracle@lnx01 trace]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:50:05 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> shut abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 trace]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp *.dbf /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 08:53:47 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database recover automatic until cancel;
alter database recover automatic until cancel
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00279: change 1065521 generated at 04/15/2014 08:47:18 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_3_844936920.dbf
ORA-00280: change 1065521 for thread 1 is in sequence #3
ORA-00278: log file ‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_3_844936920.dbf’ no
longer needed for this recovery
ORA-00308: cannot open archived log
‘/u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod/arch/1_3_844936920.dbf’
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

sql>recover cancel;

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

==============================================================================================

8.Point in time recovery

 

SQL> grant connect,resource to pitr identified by pitr;
2

SQL>
SQL> grant connect,resource to pitr identified by pitr;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> conn pitr/pitr
Connected.
SQL> @demobld

Table created.

 

Table created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

Table created.

 

Table created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

1 row created.

 

Commit complete.

SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> shut immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cp * /u03/cold/
cp: omitting directory `arch’
cp: omitting directory `diag’
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ clear

[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 09:17:58 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

 

SQL> conn pitr/pitr
Connected.
SQL> set time on
09:18:35 SQL> select count(*) from emp;

COUNT(*)
———-
14

09:18:40 SQL> select count(*) from salgrade;

COUNT(*)
———-
5

09:18:49 SQL> insert into salgrade select * from salgrade;

5 rows created.

09:19:14 SQL> /

10 rows created.

09:19:15 SQL> /

20 rows created.

09:19:16 SQL> /

40 rows created.

09:19:16 SQL> /

80 rows created.

09:19:17 SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

09:19:20 SQL> select count(*) from salgrade;

COUNT(*)
———-
160

09:19:28 SQL> drop table salgrade purge;

Table dropped.

09:19:44 SQL> alter table emp drop primary key;

Table altered.

09:20:02 SQL> insert into emp select * from emp;

14 rows created.

09:20:11 SQL> /

28 rows created.

09:20:13 SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

09:20:15 SQL> select count(*) from emp;

COUNT(*)
———-
56

09:20:20 SQL> set time off
SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /
/
System altered.

SQL>

System altered.

SQL> shut immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/
[oracle@lnx01 u03]$ mkdir warm
[oracle@lnx01 u03]$ cd
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 prod]$ cp * /u03/warm
cp: omitting directory `arch’
cp: omitting directory `diag’

[root@lnx01 ~]# su – oracle
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ . .bash_profile
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ export ORACLE_SID=prod
[oracle@lnx01 ~]$ cd /u03/cold/
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cp * /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 09:26:24 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database recover automatic using backup controlfile until time ‘2014:04:15 09:19:27’;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> conn pitr/pitr
Connected.
SQL> select count(*) from emp;

COUNT(*)
———-
14

SQL> select count(*) from salgrade;

COUNT(*)
———-
160

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ exp file=sal.dmp log=sal.log tables=salgrade

Export: Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production on Tue Apr 15 09:29:12 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

 

Username: pitr/pitr

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
Export done in US7ASCII character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set

About to export specified tables via Conventional Path …
. . exporting table SALGRADE 160 rows exported
Export terminated successfully without warnings.
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 09:29:35 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> shut immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 cold]$ cd ..
[oracle@lnx01 u03]$ cd warm/
[oracle@lnx01 warm]$ cp * /u01/app/oracle/oradata/d
demo/ dpump/
[oracle@lnx01 warm]$ cp * /u01/app/oracle/oradata/prod
[oracle@lnx01 warm]$ clear

[oracle@lnx01 warm]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 09:32:05 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 192507904 bytes
Fixed Size 1335388 bytes
Variable Size 121638820 bytes
Database Buffers 67108864 bytes
Redo Buffers 2424832 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> conn pitr/pitr
Connected.
SQL> select * from tab;

TNAME TABTYPE CLUSTERID
—————————— ——- ———-
BONUS TABLE
DEPT TABLE
EMP TABLE

SQL> select count(*) from emp;

COUNT(*)
———-
56

SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[oracle@lnx01 warm]$ imp file=sal.dmp fromuser=pitr touser=pitr

Import: Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production on Tue Apr 15 09:33:26 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Username: pitr/pitr

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

Export file created by EXPORT:V11.02.00 via conventional path
import done in US7ASCII character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set
. importing PITR’s objects into PITR
. . importing table “SALGRADE” 160 rows imported
Import terminated successfully with warnings.
[oracle@lnx01 warm]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.1.0 Production on Tue Apr 15 09:35:49 2014

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

 

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.1.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> conn pitr/pitr
Connected.
SQL> select * from tab;

TNAME TABTYPE CLUSTERID
—————————— ——- ———-
BONUS TABLE
DEPT TABLE
EMP TABLE
SALGRADE TABLE

SQL> select count(*) from salgrade;

COUNT(*)
———-
160

SQL> select count(*) from emp;

COUNT(*)
———-
56

SQL>

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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